Rhinitis in children

Sunday, June 6, 2010


Rhinitis, also known as the common cold, Coryza, Cold or Salesma is one of acute respiratory infection diseases of the commonest in children. Rhinitis can occur throughout the year, but the incidence depending on the season. Rhinitis is an acute viral infection is highly contagious

a. Definition

Rhinitis is a mild upper respiratory tract infection with symptoms of clogged nasal primary, the presence of nasal secretions, sneezing, sore throat and cough. This occurs in acute infections, can heal spontaneously, and is the most common diseases suffered by humans. Collection of symptoms including nasal congestion, sneezing, coryza (inflammation of nasal mucous secretions and expenditure), irritation of the pharynx, and presence of high fever.

b. Etiology

Rhinovirus main agents that cause more than a third of all cases, the coronavirus causing approximately 10%, RSV, Influenza virus, Parainfluenza virus and adenovirus is the cause of the largest at preschool age. Although rare, allergic rhinitis can also be caused by enterovirus (Echovirus and Coxsakievirus) and coronavirus.

c. Pathophysiology

Rhinitis transmission can occur through inhalation of aerosols containing small particles, droplet deposition in the nasal mucous or conjunctiva, or through hand contact with secretions containing the virus. Infection begins with the deposit of the virus in the anterior nasal mucous or in the eye. From the eyes, the virus into the nose through the lachrymal duct, then moving into the posterior nasopharynx due cilliamucous movement. Adenoid area, the virus enters the epithelium by binding to specific receptors on the epithelium. Once inside epithelial cells, the virus replicates rapidly. Influenza virus replication occurs in epithelial tracheobronchiale, however rhinovirus, mainly in the epithelium nasofaring. The first change is the submucous oedema and vasodilatation. Infiltrate mononuclear cells within 1-2 days which will be polimorfonuclear. Structural and functional changes result in the cleaning disrupted cilia. In moderate to severe infections, superficial epithelial peeling, there is the production of mucous is watery at first and then thickened and usually purulent.



d. Clinical manifestations

The existence of nasal secretions, and fever are often found in the first three days, watery nasal secretions and clear originally going to turn into more thick and purulent. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, irritable, sleep disturbance and decreased appetite. The physical examination can be found nasal mucous oedema and erythema and lymphadenopathy anterior.

e. Treatment

Non medical advisable not to use medicament (symptom is not too servery)
1. Elevation of the head while sleeping
2. Providing adequate fluid supportive.
Symptomatic drugs are the drug most often given, especially to eliminate the symptoms. If fever is given paracetamol 10-15 mg / kg / time, per oral. Drops / nasal spray copy to reduce nasal secretions in infants.



f. Prevention

The best way is to wash hands, particularly after contact with secretions of patients. Annual influenza immunization can prevent influenza infection and its complications.

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